A clock is a system of time measurement.
The sundial (gnomon)
It measures the time of day using the sun
The astrolabe or quadrant
The function of measuring time is added to their main function of establishing the position of the planets at a precise moment.
Known as clepsydres, they are perhaps the oldest time-independent astronomical instruments.
Clock with fire
Device for the measurement of time by the use of the slow and predictable combustion of a fuel.
Combustion of candles as an indicator of duration
A long stick coated with a combustible paste (incense) burns slowly in its entirety. The time is then read from the burnt length.
A grid is placed on a support. The hollow part is filled with incense powder and then removed. Then one of the ends of the labyrinth is lit, and when all has burned, the time has elapsed.
The wick of an oil lamp was lit, the oil level decreased in the graduated tank and the elapsed time was read on the graduations.
Consisting of two bulbs or glass ampoules placed one on the other and connected by a thin pipe. The bulb filled with fine sand, or a similar body, is placed at the top and by the effect of gravity, the sand flows slowly and regularly into the other. Once all the sand is in the bottom bulb, you can turn the hourglass to measure another period of time.
Time and social life are especially punctuated by the bell bells of churches (each ring can last 1 / 4h or 1 / 2h).
Ancient mechanical clocks
A new mechanism
Outside Europe, the escape mechanism was discovered and used in medieval China. The Song dynasty watchmaker and engineer Su Song (1020-1101) incorporated it into his Kaifeng astronomical clock in 1088. However, his astronomical clock and the rotation of the armillary sphere were still based on the use of hydraulic techniques. .
Between 1280 and 1320, there is an increase in the number of clocks and “clock” references in parish registers, which probably indicates that a new type of clock mechanism was designed. The European watchmakers of the time focused on better control of the power provided by the weights, thanks to the exhaust mechanism.
This controlled release of energy from weights – the exhaust – marks the beginning of the true mechanical clock.
These mechanical clocks had two main objectives: signage and notification (for example, the calendar of services and public events), and modeling of the solar system. The primary purpose is administrative, the second arises naturally considering the interest of researchers in astronomy, science, astrology, and how these topics integrated with the philosophy of the time. The astrolabe was used by both astronomers and astrologers, and it was natural to apply a clockwork motor to the turntable to produce a working model of the solar system.
In the seventeenth century, Galileo invented the oscillating clock that will lead, with the contributions of Huygens and Coster, the pendulum pendulum. The large clocks, richly chiseled, then appear in aristocratic homes. Huygens invented the spiral spring in 1675 which made it possible to remove the balance and reduce the size of the clocks. Clocks become more affordable and spread in homes. The industrialization of the clock in the nineteenth century is in line with the need to control time more and more accurately. The wristwatch made its appearance on the wrist during the 1950s. Finally, the quartz and the atom gradually replace the clockwork mechanisms.
… and many other clocks since …
Prague astronomical clock
Toulouse, rue Alsace-Lorraine, wall clock with a 24-hour dial
Astronomical clock of Lund
Clock with clock
Clock tower of the town hall Mutzig with an automaton
Clock teaches in Tübingen
Clock of the Cathedral of Our Lady of Antwerp
Clock “the finger of God” in Torun
and other beautiful clocks:
(Sources: http://www.wikipedia.org , http://www.zoneindustrie.com , http://www.neo-planete.com , http://www.faculty.fims.uwo.ca, http : //www.aip.org , http://www.ec-ferry-nanterre.ac-versailles.fr, http://www.moinat.biz, http://www.cliophoto.clionautes.org, http : //www.deco.fr , http://www.pinterest.com )